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Correction. The mathematical concept of zero is documented to have already been in use in South America by 36BC. Around 150AD it appears in India and Egypt. The 300 year figure I mentioned is speculation, not fact.

I wish I could live long enough to understand all the knowledge waiting to be found in the Americas pre European "discovery." To be able to compare how 2 civilizations isolated from each other would be priceless.
Mayan astronomy was pretty amazing. Granted, their observations were wholly fueled by their religious practices -- but whatever the motivation, the dedication and precision they applied to mathematical calculations vis-a-vis celestial objects is impressive.

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Mayan astronomy was pretty amazing. Granted, their observations were wholly fueled by their religious practices -- but whatever the motivation, the dedication and precision they applied to mathematical calculations vis-a-vis celestial objects is impressive.

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In the 1600's Galileo was found to be a heretic by the Catholic Church for claiming the planets circled the sun.
On Halloween 1992 the church "forgave" him.
The book I'm reading now "1491, New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus" starts by comparing what's known of the civilizations in the Americas and Eurasia. The similarities in the civilizations are striking, although it's not the intent of the book to compare them.
 

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In the 1600's Galileo was found to be a heretic by the Catholic Church for claiming the planets circled the sun.
On Halloween 1992 the church "forgave" him.
The book I'm reading now "1491, New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus" starts by comparing what's known of the civilizations in the Americas and Eurasia. The similarities in the civilizations are striking, although it's not the intent of the book to compare them.
I'm always up for a little history -- I'll have to check it out. If you've never seen it, I recommend the "500 Nations" TV documentary mini-series produced by Kevin Costner. There's also a corresponding hardbound edition.

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In the 1600's Galileo was found to be a heretic by the Catholic Church for claiming the planets circled the sun.
On Halloween 1992 the church "forgave" him.
The book I'm reading now "1491, New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus" starts by comparing what's known of the civilizations in the Americas and Eurasia. The similarities in the civilizations are striking, although it's not the intent of the book to compare them.
Check out Fingerprints of the Gods. The author has taken a lot of criticism for going too far with some stuff, but he has some really fun facts mixed in, and it's very entertaining whether he has it right or not. Lots of stuff on mayans, ancient egypt, angkor wat, etc. This is the movie he made about some of the same stuff, but it's not as good as the book.

 

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Exactly, maybe other Indian tribes kicked out by Indians should be asking those tribes for reparations.
Any tribe that ever came in contact with the comanches would probably ask for nothing but their comanche heads on a stick. Empire of the Summer Moon, 5 star book about the comanche, really great book. Man they were some stone age savages.

From Blood Meridian, another great book, but somewhat disturbing-
“Already you could see through the dust on the ponies’ hides the painted chevrons and the hands and rising suns and birds and fish of every device like the shade of old work through sizing on a canvas and now too you could hear above the pounding of the unshod hooves the piping of the quena, flutes made from human bones, and some among the company had begun to saw back on their mounts and some to mill in confusion when up from the offside of those ponies there rose a fabled horde of mounted lancers and archers bearing shields bedight with bits of broken mirrorglass that cast a thousand unpieced suns against the eyes of their enemies.

A legion of horribles, hundreds in number, half naked or clad in costumes attic or biblical or wardrobed out of a fevered dream with the skins of animals and silk finery and pieces of uniform still tracked with the blood of prior owners, coats of slain dragoons, frogged and braided cavalry jackets, one in a stovepipe hat and one with an umbrella and one in white stockings and a bloodstained weddingveil and some in headgear of cranefeathers or rawhide helmets that bore the horns of bull or buffalo and one in a pigeontailed coat worn backwards and otherwise naked and one in the armor of a Spanish conquistador, the breastplate and pauldrons deeply dented with old blows of mace or sabre done in another country by men whose very bones were dust and many with their braids spliced up with the hair of other beasts until they trailed upon the ground and their horses’ ears and tails worked with bits of brightly colored cloth and one whose horse’s whole head was painted crimson red and all the horsemen’s faces gaudy and grotesque with daubings like a company of mounted clowns, death hilarious, all howling in a barbarous tongue and riding down upon them like a horde from a hell more horrible yet than the brimstone land of Christian reckoning, screeching and yammering and clothed in smoke like those vaporous beings in regions beyond right knowing where the eye wanders and the lip jerks and drools.

Oh my god, said the sergeant.”
 

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Any tribe that ever came in contact with the comanches would probably ask for nothing but their comanche heads on a stick. Empire of the Summer Moon, 5 star book about the comanche, really great book. Man they were some stone age savages.
Some great stuff on firearm history in that book. The comanche were such expert horsemen and archers that they were just about unbeatable at first, and that's if you could even find them, since they were always on the move. If i recall, it was the first colt revolvers, not the big one but the first one, the 5 shot, that evened the odds quite a bit. The army wasn't interested at first and thought they were mostly useless, but one of the best texas ranger scalp hunter types recognized the revolvers' value and tried it out to great success. Then came the big 6 shooter which really leveled the field against the comanches' 20 shot per minute from horseback bow work. Then a little later came the first good repeater rifles, and it was all downhill for comancheria after that.

This was the guy, the toughest scalp hunter and ranger
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Coffee_Hays
 
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