Like the government did with the Tuskegee experiment?Unfortunately, the R0 is fluid and influenced by the use of PPE. Early on, the R0 was between 3-7 simply because precautions were not widespread. This was probably the most accurate number. Once PPE and hand washing become more widespread, the R0 drops.
The most accurate way to measure R0 would be to infect one person (without them knowing it) and then track everyone they come in contact with (without anyone knowing it) and then tracking disease transmission.
Obviously not ethical nor practical. However, I wouldn’t be surprised if the ChiComs have done it with their own people.