I'll start with what I know about Canada. You need a licence called a PAL (Possession and Acquisition) or FAC as it was formerly called. You can either challenge the exam, or take a course for about $150.00 and if you pass, you send in for a license. This is a federally controlled thing, though small firearms laws vary from Province to Province, as well as how willing the local police are to enforce them. To obtain a firearm, they are organized in two categories; restricted, and non-restricted. Non-restricted firearms are your run of the mill trap guns, pump actions, bolt rifles, yadda yadda. They can be discharged on "Crown land" (i.e out in woods following certain guidelines) and transporting and storing them is a lot more lax. Shotgun barrel length can go quite low, and often you see people rocking 12.5" or smaller barrels without a problem with legalities. Restricted are the ones deemed "evil" (through no logic), i.e all handguns, black rifles like the AR15, certain "tactical" shotguns too I believe. Restricted firearms can only be discharged at approved ranges, and require an ATT (authorization to transfer) which basically means you have to have a piece of paper telling you that you have permission to transport them to and from a range at a certain time, taking the most direct reasonable route. Handgun regulations: All handguns must have a barrel length of 106 millimeters. That means a Glock 17 is legal to own, but a Glock 19 is not. All pistol magazines can can carry a maximum of ten rounds, achieved either with pinning said magazines, or by manufacturers creating them like such. The barrel length of semi-autos includes the chamber, so that 106mm includes both the barrel and the chamber. However, on revolvers, this is not true, and the barrel length is for the barrel ONLY, and revolvers must be much larger in size than semi-autos to be considered legal. These restricted firearms must be transported with a trigger lock, in a locked container, and preferably in a locked car. Same deal with the AR15s. But ARs have been limited to five round magainzes until recently, the RCMP have been convinced the AR uses pistol mags (I don't know...) and you can now posses and use ten round magazines. Most restricted semi-auto rifles are restricted to five round magazines. Same with shotguns. Prohibited class: Certain firearms were banned at the drop of a hat. There's speculation that when this happened, various models were banned from any possession, and the police came and took them away. Like, you were a legal owner on Monday, then on Tuesday a law came into effect and you were a fugitive. I'm not sure how accurate this is but I wouldn't put it past the lawmakers. Some guns were "Grandfathered". For example, handguns with lengths under 106 millimeter, as well as .25 and .32 caliber guns (with some exceptions, it's complicated!) were deemed illegal. If you had one in your possession before this, you were grandfathered a Prohibited class 12-6 license. There are other classes of this, including some full automatics and certain others. Some guns are banned just by name, because they sound "evil", including the, you guessed it, AK47 and its variants. The definition of a variant is very unclear, so certain guns look like an AK, but are different enough to be non-restricted firearms, like the CZ 858. Registration: Since a few years ago, all firearms in the country have to have been legally registered. We currently have a minority Conservative government who wants to kill the non-restricted registry. All the other parties vote to keep the registry, so what the Conservatives do is grant an amnesty to let license-holding owners possess a non-restricted firearm without legal repercussions, but the aim is supposed to be to get them registered. However, the amnesty has been renewed like, three years in a row. So you can tell they just want to obliterate the registry for good. It's commonly regarded as a huge waste of taxpayer's money (2 Billion dollars and counting, exponentially over budget, surprise surprise) and is unsafe because it has security issues and people can hack in to see a "shopping list" of firearms. Registering a non-restricted firearm takes like, a minute on the computer. Registering a restricted class (e.g handgun, AR15) takes a few days and they have to do it manually, run you through the system, then you have to obtain a short-term ATT to get permission to transport the gun home during certain hours or a certain day. Why? I don't quite know. Has any of this curbed crime? Absolutely not. Is it frustrating and confusing? Yes! Laws change under your nose and suddenly you're doing something that's wrong without even knowing it. Fortunately the current Conservative party is pro-gun and waived license renewal fees and is working to curb the non-restricted registry. Police often get confused as to what's legal and what's not. I was shooting in the woods, being 100% legal, and I got searched and told I needed trigger locks for my guns (which I did not) and I'd be let off with a 'warning'. Gee, thanks. Anyway, I figured I'd let you know how needlessly complicated and asinine it is here, and would love to hear how it is in other places too!