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Einstein was right.....

Discussion in 'The Okie Corral' started by StarShip2100, Mar 10, 2010.

  1. StarShip2100

    StarShip2100 Futurist

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    Einstein Was Right: General Relativity Confirmed

    By Clara Moskowitz
    - Space.com

    Score one more for Einstein. A new study has confirmed his theory of general relativity works on extremely large scales.


    [​IMG] M. Blanton and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
    A partial map of the distribution of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, going out to a distance of 7 billion light years. The amount of galaxy clustering that we observe today is a signature of how gravity acted over cosmic time, and allows us to test if general relativity holds over these scales.


    Score one more for Einstein. A new study has confirmed his theory of general relativity works on extremely large scales.
    The study was one of the first rigorous tests of this theory of gravity beyond our solar system. The research found that even over vast scales of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the equations of general relativity predict the way that mass pulls on other mass in the universe.

    The new work also helps rule out a competing theory of gravity that seeks to do away with the need for bizarre concepts like dark matter and dark energy that have irked some scientists. This research indicates those pesky ideas may be here to stay.

    What is relativity?
    General relativity rocked the world of physics when Einstein first published his paper on the subject in 1915. The theory built on the traditional idea of gravity based on Isaac Newton's laws, but added fundamentally new concepts like the notion that mass deforms the shape of space-time. This means that objects and even light that move through space near a large mass will travel on a curved path. Furthermore, it means that mass can stretch or shrink time as well. For example, someone watching a black hole from a distance would observe a person falling into that black hole to fall extremely slowly.


    To test this theory over distances up to 3.5 billion light-years from Earth, researchers analyzed a survey of about 70,000 galaxies. The scientists combined three different measurements. First, they calculated the weak gravitational lensing caused by the galaxies – that is, they measured how much the galaxies' mass was bending light from other galaxies around them by noting the average distortion of the surrounding galaxies' shapes.
    Then, they combined this data with measurements of the galaxies' velocities to learn how the galaxies were moving toward and away from one another. Finally, the astrophysicists calculated how clustered the galaxies were together over various distances. All of these measurements combined created a system to test theories of gravity independent of particular parameters in the theories.

    The scientists found that general relativity is consistent with their observations of the universe at large scales. They also tested two competing theories – the tensor-vector-scalar gravity (TeVeS) idea, and another called f(R) (pronounced "f of r").

    The quantities predicted by f(R) were somewhat different from those observed, but still fell within the margin of error of the measurements, so this theory is still a possibility. TeVeS, however, made predictions that fell outside the observational error limits, so scientists think they can probably eliminate this theory from consideration.

    "It wasn't clear at the outset that our errors would be small enough to be able to rule out other models – it was a nice surprise," said study leader Reinabelle Reyes, a graduate student at Princeton University in Princeton, N.J.

    TeVeS was already looking doubtful based on recent observations of a pair of colliding galaxy clusters called the bullet cluster, which offered strong evidence for the existence of dark matter, Reyes said. The new research offers another nail in its coffin.

    Solid support
    While general relativity was already pretty well accepted among physicists, the new findings offer more solid support for the theory.
    "It's good to know that general relativity is consistent," Reyes told SPACE.com. "Now we have something to hold on to saying the universe really works that way."

    The study was detailed in the March 11 issue of the journal Nature.
    To further judge between Einstein's theory and other ideas, including f(R), research on more galaxies will be necessary to reduce the margins of error on the data.

    "Reyes and colleagues' measurements are significant not just because they are consistent within error with general relativity, but also because they point the way to future high-precision tests that will better distinguish between general relativity and some variant models," physicist J. Anthony Tyson of the University of California, Davis, wrote in an accompanying essay in the same issue of Nature. Tyson was not involved in the study.


    I guess this was not science until it could be proven..... ?
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  2. MtBaldy

    MtBaldy Obie Wan, RIP

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    The first exerimental verification of Einstein's theory came in 1919 from Sir Arthur Eddington observing stars near the sun during a solar eclipse. Those observations have been repeated with the same results several times over the years. They established for most people the validity of Einstein's Theory of Relativiity. This used new technology to verify the theory, as expected, works with very large objects over great distances. The title of the article was typical sensationalism mongering by an uninformed MSM reporter.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Arthur_Eddington
     

  3. JohnBT

    JohnBT NRA Benefactor

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    "observing stars near the sun"

    They weren't quite where they should have appeared because the mass of the Sun bent the light from the stars as it passed near the Sun. He predicted it.

    JT
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  4. RayB

    RayB Retired Member

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    In keeping with the above comment, a technique called gravitational lensing is used in deep space observations and calculations.

    Other Facts That Support Special Relativity:

    - Time Dilation: Hyper-accurate clocks aboard fast moving aircraft or rockets always slow down and lose time. True, it's minute, but it happens. This is consistent with Einstein's prediction that as we approach the speed of light, time dilates, or slows down.

    - Increased Mass: Particle accelerators are designed to accommodate the increased mass of the particles as they approach light speed. Einstein predicted that an object would become compressed and elongate in the direction of its motion, as it approached light speed.

    - The Constant of C: C represents light speed, and all light, emitted or reflected, travels at precisely the same speed. When we observe objects near and far, at the same time, all the light reaches our eyes at the same time--unlike sound. Einstein insisted that the speed of light was a constant, and that nothing else, but light, can travel as fast or faster. For the universe to work as we observe it, there has to be a cosmic speed limit.

    --Ray
     
  5. devildog2067

    devildog2067

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    We've had fairly good evidence that Einstein was right for 100 years or so. More evidence is always welcomed.

    There were a number of competing theories proposed near the same time; in fact Lorentz first formulated the mathematical framework that now bears his name (the Lorentz transformation matrix) because he refused to believe that the aether did not exist. He turned out to be wrong, and yes his theory is not science, even though we now use his equations for a totally different purpose than what he envisioned.
     
  6. DEADLYACCURATE

    DEADLYACCURATE Senior Member

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    of course Einstein is right Einstein is always right thats why he is Einstein
     
  7. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    Now, if someone could prove that General Relativity holds true for very small scales then we'll have something interesting!
     
  8. deMontacute

    deMontacute NRA Member

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    Those are all predicted by Special Relativity not General Relativity...
     
  9. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    Well, since General Relativity is just a unification of Special Relativity and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation then it could be said that those effects are predicted by both. And to be fair, he did say "Special Relativity" in his post.
     
  10. tous

    tous GET A ROPE!

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    The ignorant and often foolish media reporters would do well to just stay the heck away from science all together. :upeyes:

    Now, if you'll excuse me, I'll get back to work on my FTL drive down in my basement.

    :supergrin:
     
  11. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    Except when he's not, then he's somebody else.

    :supergrin:
     
  12. Altaris

    Altaris

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    In very small scale are you referring to an infinitely small point(singularity) of a black hole?
     
  13. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    Warp drive or space folding?
     
  14. devildog2067

    devildog2067

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    No. He's referring to one of the biggest problems in physics today, that two spectacularly successful theories (quantum mechanics and general relativity) don't get along at quantum distance scales. The guy who successfully quantizes GR is going to get the fastest Nobel Prize ever awarded.
     
  15. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    Devildog beat me to it. That will indeed get you a Nobel (not that those are hard to come by these days).

    :supergrin:
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  16. tous

    tous GET A ROPE!

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    I prefer the 'in a state where all points of the Universe are adjacent' approach.

    I think I'm gonna call it a Hemi.
     
  17. Geko45

    Geko45 Smartass Pilot CLM

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    I'm going with an Improbability Drive myself.

    :whistling:
     
  18. tous

    tous GET A ROPE!

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    That one's kinda hard on whales. :scared:
     
  19. Haldor

    Haldor Formerly retired EE.

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    One of the more interesting things I learned relatively recently is that magnetic force due to an electric current flow is actually a relativistic effect. I spent an evening going over the derivations and think I almost understand it (who am I kidding). Even if if I have to push my "I believe" button at points, that is pretty cool.
     
  20. engineer151515

    engineer151515

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    .....