The summer 2008 issue of Answering the Call (a quarterly journal for law enforcement and first responders), published a summary of a study conducted by Thomas J. Aveni of the Police Policy Studies Council. The study subjected 307 experienced LEO volunteers to a series of low-light ambiguous shoot/don't shoot scenarios designed to prove what factors influence the split-second decision to use deadly force. Dozens of traits (age, dress, behavior, "race", sex) of the potential BG were tabulated, along with traits of the LEO (age, experience, agency policies, training). Of particular interest were: (1) which factors most often led to the LEOs' getting shot (by airsoft pellet) because they waited too long and (2) which factors most often led to the LEOs' shooting an unarmed surrendering person because they fired too soon. Some of the study's findings are intuitively obvious. (Officers trained to be certain of the threat before shooting often get shot.) But two findings regarding bad shoots were surprising (at least to me). The first surprise is that, other factors being equal, neither the officer's "race" nor that of the potential BG was significant. (In contrast, OIS statistics routinely show that unarmed surrendering Blacks get shot more often.) Second, the most significant factor by far was how compliant or defiant the person was just before the shoot/don't shoot event. Those who had been compliant and cooperative before turning to face the LEO while, say, pulling a cellphone from their belt, did not get shot. Those who defied and vilified the LEO before turning suddenly towards the LEO often got shot even while raising empty hands over their heads. How to reconcile the two surprising findings with OIS statistics? In short, unarmed surrendering Blacks are more likely to get shot (regardless the the LEO's "race") because they are more likely to posture and threaten before the sudden movement, not because they look Black. Click here for a copy of the summary article published in Answering the Call. Click here for a copy of the complete 44-page study.