As used by DOJ (FBI/DEA/ATF/USMS) and DHS (ICE/CBP/USSS/FAM) since 1989 (based on what I remember and what I see now; updates welcome): 5 round avgs in gel through FBI spec heavy cloth (one layer of cotton T-shirt material (48 threads per inch); one layer of cotton shirt material (80 threads per inch); a 10 ounce down comforter in a cambric shell cover (232 threads per inch); and one layer of 13 ounce cotton denim (50 threads per inch). ICE/DHS spec heavy cloth is virtually identical. : 9x19 Win 115 STHP 11.8/.58 Fed 115 +P+ JHP 10.6/.62 Rem 115 +P+ JHP 10.9/.62 Win 115 +P+ JHP 10.1/.65 Speer 124 GD 17.5/.51 Rem 124 +P GS 14/.60 * (Current DHS duty load) Win 147 JHP 18.1/.47 Fed 147 HS 14.9/.57 Speer 147 GD 14.7/.55 Win 147 Bonded 15.8/.58 (Current DOJ duty load) 40S&W Win 155 JHP 13.1/.71** (Current DHS duty load) Fed 165 HS 19.3/.56 Speer 165 GD 15.8/.60 Rem 165 GS 14.4/.66 Rem 180 GS 14.8/.67 Win 180 Bonded 19/.59 (Current DOJ duty load) 357SIG Speer 125 GD 17.3/.51 (Current DHS duty load) 45 ACP Rem 185 JHP 24.5/.55 Fed 230 HS 16.3/.66 Rem 230 GS 16.5/.69 (Current DOJ duty load) * Also use Fed 124 +P HST ** Also used Fed 135 HST. New Win 135 JHP should have about the same expansion, less penetration, as the 155 JHP. It's the same design at the same speed, just lighter in weight. DHS also uses 155 JHPs from Remington and Federal. DOJ has a 12 inch minimum penetration requirement, DHS a 9 inch minimum. Different protocols, different scoring systems. FBI tests for DOJ contracts, ICE for DHS contracts. Different lots of ammo tested at different times may vary a little or a lot. Some of the stuff above has changed a little or a lot since the tests above. Your ammo and your bad guy may vary a little or a lot too. This stuff isn't shot into stone, don't carve it into stone. Do what I do: get what ya like, or flip a coin and like what ya get.