I shoot both real black powder rifles and revolvers, in addition to shooting smokeless powder weapons using both non-corrosive and foreign military surplus corrosive ammunition.
The most difficult residue to clean properly is corrosive smokeless ammunition, for which good old US surplus Mil Spec C-372-B (and later) bore cleaner does a better job than anything else I've ever used. Lacking that, I would use hot water and soap, followed by normal lubrication.
Black powder residue, OTOH, may very easily cleaned out using just hot water and soap.
That having been said, I doubt that any adverse effects have taken place for the situation you describe. If you really have doubts that bother you, and you lack the Mil Spec C-372 bore cleaner, clean the Glock barrel once in hot soapy water, dry it, then clean normally as you would any modern weapon that has not been fed corrosive ammunition.
I use CLP-Break Free for all my cleaning and lubrication requirements when I'm not doing the initial clean out of corrosive salts. CLP is supposed to be effective for cleaning corrosive salts, but I do the C-372-B treatment first to be sure, if corrosive ammunition has been fired.
The Tenifer metal treatment was claimed by Glock to make their barrels more resistant to corrosion than had they been chrome lined. Presumably the treatment that replaced Tenifer at Glock a few years ago works as well.
Regardless, I wouldn't worry at all, were I you.